Michael L. Jackson, PhD, MPH
Research interests and experience
- Epidemiology of infectious diseases: Disease burden, risk factors, transmission dynamics, surveillance and response
- Vaccine effectiveness: Methodology, removing bias in effectiveness estimates
- Vaccine safety: Rates of adverse events, safety of new vaccines
Michael L. Jackson’s research into the spread and control of infectious diseases focuses on understanding disease-transmission dynamics and the design and assessment of interventions such as vaccine programs. Also interested in vaccine safety, Dr. Jackson was a graduate research associate with Group Health Research Institute (GHRI) from 2002 to 2007 and a postdoctoral fellow at GHRI from 2007 to 2008. He recently returned to GHRI as an assistant scientific investigator after two years as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.
As a graduate student with GHRI, Dr. Jackson led research into whether flu vaccinations help prevent pneumonia in older adults. His 2008 paper in The Lancet won recognition for showing that flu vaccines for seniors (aged 65 to 94) are not as effective as previously thought. According to Dr. Jackson and his co-authors, many observational studies of influenza vaccine had overestimated the vaccine’s effectiveness in the elderly, with important policy consequences. Their work identified and removed the bias in these estimates—giving a more accurate picture of the benefits of influenza vaccination in the elderly. Other work during that time included studies of the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia, risk factors for pneumonia in seniors, and the effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines.
As an EIS officer, Dr. Jackson helped lead investigations of whooping cough outbreaks and of the 2009 influenza pandemic. He also created a simulation model of the spread of Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib). Originally designed to help manage the 2008–2009 shortage of Hib vaccines in the United States, the model has been extended to other populations and is expected to have important implications for Hib vaccination programs in developing countries and during vaccine shortages. The model earned him the J. Virgil Peavy award for “Innovative use of statistics in an epidemiologic investigation” granted at the 2009 EIS annual conference.
While he loved the work he was doing at the CDC, Dr. Jackson realized he missed certain aspects of research and academia. When the opportunity to come back to GHRI arose, the wealth of available data, potential collaborations, and collegiality compelled him to take it.
Osterholm MT, Kelley NS, Belongia EA, Jackson LA, Jackson ML. Reply: Cochrane rearranged. Vaccine. 2014 Feb 13. pii: S0264-410X(14)00160-1. doi [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed
Ohmit SE, Thompson MG, Petrie JG, Thaker SN, Jackson ML, Belongia EA, Zimmerman RK, Gaglani M, Lamerato L, Spencer SM, Jackson L, Meece JK, Nowalk MP, Song J, Zervos M, Cheng PY, Rinaldo CR, Clipper L, Shay DK, Piedra P, Monto AS. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in the 2011-2012 season: protection against each circulating virus and the effect of prior vaccination on estimates. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov 13 [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed
Jackson ML, Yu O, Nelson JC, Naleway A, Belongia EA, Baxter R, Narwaney K, Jacobsen SJ, Shay DK, Jackson LA. Further evidence for bias in observational studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness: the 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Oct 15;178(8):1327-36. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt124. Epub 2013 Aug 26. PubMed
Nelson JC, Marsh T, Lumley T, Larson EB, Jackson LA, Jackson ML; Vaccine Safety Datalink Team. Validation sampling can reduce bias in health care database studies: an illustration using influenza vaccination effectiveness. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Aug;66(8 Suppl):S110-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.01.015. PubMed
Dublin S, Baldwin E, Walker RL, Christensen LM, Haug PJ, Jackson ML, Nelson JC, Ferraro J, Carrell D, Chapman WW. Natural language processing to identify pneumonia from radiology reports. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Aug;22(8):834-41. doi: 10.1002/pds.3418. Epub 2013 Apr 1. PubMed
McCarthy NL, Weintraub E, Vellozzi C, Duffy J, Gee J, Donahue JG, Jackson ML, Lee GM, Glanz J, Baxter R, Lugg MM, Naleway A, Omer SB, Nakasato C, Vazquez-Benitez G, DeStefano F. Mortality rates and cause-of-death patterns in a vaccinated population. Am J Prev Med. 2013;45(1):91-7. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.02.020. PubMed
Greene SK, Rett MD, Vellozzi C, Kulldorff M, Marcy SM, Daley MF, Belongia EA, Baxter R, Fireman BH, Jackson ML, Omer SB, Nordin JD, Jin R, Weintraub ES, Vijayadeva V, Lee GM. Guillain-Barré Syndrome, influenza vaccination, and antecedent respiratory and gastrointestinal infections: a case-centered analysis in the Vaccine Safety Datalink, 2009-2011. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 26;8(6):e67185. Print 2013. PubMed
Tartof S, Cohn A, Tarbangdo F, Djingarey MH, Messonnier N, Clark TA, Kambou JL, Novak R, Diomande FV, Medah I, Jackson ML. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt. PLoS One. 2013 May 9;8(5):e63605. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063605. Print 2013. PubMed
Jackson ML, Nelson JC. The test-negative design for estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness. Vaccine. 2013 Apr 19;31(17):2165-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.053. Epub 2013 Mar 13. PubMed
Jackson ML. Challenges in comparing the safety of different vaccination schedules. Vaccine. 2013 Apr 19;31(17):2126-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.054. Epub 2013 Mar 5. PubMed
To view more publications, please see Dr. Jackson's CV.